HIV is also a Cause of Sore Throat

General.

You may find people going to doctors and complaint about their sore throat. This complaint remains at the top of the list especially in winter season. The causes of sore throat can be wide verities of conditions that can hurt a throat, from infections to allergies to acid reflux and even tumors. Pain is the most significant symptom of a sore throat. Other symptoms include having a scratchy feeling in throat, trouble swallowing, more intense pain when you do swallow, and changes in your voice. In most cases the chances are that your sore throat will fade in a few days without any real prodding, but there can be more trouble, if it lingers. There are following reasons that may hurt a throat.

Viral infections .

Viruses are by far the most common cause of sore throats, says Alan Mensch, MD, a pulmonologist and senior vice president of medical affairs at Northwell Health’s Plainview and Syosset Hospitals in New York. Frequently these are the same viruses that cause the common cold or the flu that makes your throat hurt. But viruses that cause mononucleosis, measles, chickenpox, and croup (famous in children for barking cough) also produce sore throats. Antibiotics won’t help viral infections and shouldn’t even be tried. In such situation you can Gargle with warm salt water, try over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil), make sure you stay hydrated, use a humidifier or steamer to ease respiratory symptoms, and get plenty of rest. Most viral infections continue for a week, with the exception of mono, that drags on for weeks or months. Protect yourself from viral infections by washing your hands well and regularly. Avoid keeping yourself too close to affected by viral infections, and cover your own coughs and sneezes.

Strep throat .

Once the viruses and bacteria are the most common cause of sore throats, says Kathleen Tibbetts, MD, assistant professor of otolaryngology at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. And at the top of that list, especially in children, is strep throat, caused from streptococcus bacteria. Use of antibiotics like penicillin and amoxicillin can usually clear strep and other bacterial infections easily. The trick is in differentiating between viral and bacterial infections, which is not always easy to do. Strep throat usually comes with a high fever (above 101), red spots or white patches on your tonsils, and swollen lymph nodes. A throat culture will tell you definitively if you have the infection and, if you do have strep, it’s important to treat it. “We worry about the late complications of strep including damage to the kidneys and heart valves,” says Dr. Mensch.

Tonsillitis

Commonly tonsillitis is a broader term for reddened and swollen tonsils, usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The tonsils are two growths at the back of your throat that form a frontline of your body’s immune system. They check out germs entering your body and often get infected in the process. In addition to red, swollen tonsils, other symptoms of tonsillitis include white or yellow patches on the tonsils, fever, voice changes, bad breathing, and throat pain when you swallow. In severe cases, tonsils can get large enough to obstruct the nasal passages, causing breathing, swallowing, and sleep difficulties. Treatment of tonsillitis is largely supportive and focuses on maintaining adequate hydration and caloric intake and controlling pain and fever. Inability to maintain adequate oral caloric and fluid intake may require IV hydration, antibiotics, and pain control.Allergies. It is reported that more than fifty million people in the United States have allergies of one kind or another, according to the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. Allergies happen when your body has an outsize reaction to certain environmental factors such as dust, pollen, pet dander, or mold, setting off a cascade of symptoms including a runny or stuffed nose, sneezing, itching, and, yes, sometimes a sore throat. Sore throats from allergies can be made worse by post-nasal drip, which is when the mucus normally produced by glands in your nose starts to build up and trickle down the back of your throat. Allergy-related sore throats can be confused with viral and bacterial sore throats, but there are ways to tell them apart. “Allergies are going to go on longer, and they’re not going to have symptoms of fever, you may have itchy eyes and a runny nose,” says Dr. Tibbetts. Many allergy-related sore throats also only appear during certain seasons, like fall of winters or start of spring.

Irritants

Basically Irritants are different from allergies, even though they also cause reactions to certain outside elements, like air pollution, smoking drinking, cleaning products, and chlorine. “The allergy mechanism is an immune response,” explains Dr. Tibbetts. “whereas irritation is not an immune reaction. It’s just irritating the tissue–and we’re seeing more and more of it in urban areas as people are exposed to pollution.” Exposure to certain irritants can make your throat chronically sore, so avoid them if it is possible.

Dry air

Atmospheric humidity and temperature both can affect the mucous membranes that line your throat. Dry and hot air like in a heated building–can cause discomfort, and it tends to be worse first thing in the morning. “A lot of time in the winter months you have the heater going so you’re breathing dry air all night,” says Dr. Tibbetts. “Use a humidifier in your room at night when you’re sleeping.” You can also heat up a pot of water and inhale the soothing steam, she adds. Summer air conditioning can have a similarly painful effect on your throat.

Muscle strain.

Commonly yelling and screaming can certainly hurt your throat, but so can talking a lot. Studies have found aerobics instructors and teachers have frequent sore throats. A phenomenon called “vocal fry” can also leave your throat feeling sore. “It’s the way that a lot of young people are talking in a gravelly voice,” explains Dr. Tibbetts. “You’re basically using your voice the wrong way.” There are actually voice therapists who can help you reverse the habit–that is, if you want to.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

GERD is a digestive disorder and your throat is a vital part of of your digestive apparatus. “Stomach acid is coming up into your esophagus and then sometimes up into the throat,” says Dr. Tibbetts. “Typically, people will have some other associated symptoms, like indigestion.” Symptoms can get worse after a big meal. Although there are plenty of over-the-counter and prescription medications to counter GERD, you can also tame the condition by losing weight and eating smaller, low-fat, low-acid meals.H

HIV

Thanks to remarkable new medications, the number of new HIV cases in the many parts of the world are declining and even people who are infected are less likely to actually get in big problem/sick. That said, sore throats can still sometimes appear in the collection of HIV symptoms. Forty to 90% of people with HIV have flu-like symptoms–which may include a sore throat as well as high fever, chills, and fatigue for about two to four weeks after they are first infected. People who’ve been infected with the HIV virus for a while may also get sore throats as a consequence of a secondary infection like oral thrush or cytomegalovirus, both common in people with HIV. People who have weak  immune systems for other reasons, such as chemotherapy, diabetes, or treatment with steroids may also susceptible to sore throats from a variety of causes.

Tumors

There is no need to keep Throat cancers at the top of your list of things to worry about when you have a sore throat, but you need to consider this. “All sites of the throat can be affected from the upper part, the tonsil area to the back of the tongue up to voice box and the upper part of the esophagus,” says Dr. Tibbetts.

In addition to a sore throat, a tumor is also likely to manifest with other symptoms like a lump, hoarseness in your voice, trouble swallowing, weight loss, chronic fever or chills, and even pain in your ear. Throat pain from a tumor also tends to linger. “Viral or bacterial sore throats should get better in days to weeks but if this is at thing lasts for weeks and months, that is concerning,” says Dr. Tibbetts. If you have any of these red flags, see a doctor IMMEDIATELY without further delay.

Concluding Remarks

The details given in this article ae the based on my personal knowledge. It is therefore requested that in case of sore throat you should consult your physician before starting any weight loss or health management programme at yourself,to determine if it is right for your needs. \lsdpriority

Source:  https://www.msn.comhttps://www.msn.com/en-in/health/wellness/10-reasons-you-have-a-sore-throat/ar-BBNoRAm

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